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Monday, October 13, 2008

How can Melamine in Our Food?

Because of want to make it appear higher proteinnya womb, milk products in China mixed melamine. No half-hearted, at least four infants died and to this day is more than 13,000 babies have been treated.

Fact that similar cases have occurred widely years ago due mixing melamine in animal feed from China. As a result, hundreds of dogs and cats died and thousands of other suffering kidney failure.

What is melamine? Is this same with melamine that is used for the equipment we eat? What danger? What lessons can be drawn from this case? Short paper will try to give the following answers to the things that.

It is different with tools

The danger melamine is the organic compound with the formula C3H6N6 basa, contain of nitrogen up to 66 percent, usually obtained as white crystals. Melamine is usually used to make plastics, glue, and fertilizer.

Of melamine plastic, because the nature of heat-resistant, used for wide kitchen utensil. Therefore, the dangerous melamine is different plastic with tools. That material is basic plastic melamine.

Based on the information on the WHO site, the melamine was mixing with the water. Due to this dilution, make matrix of milk protein is down. Because the manufacturer of raw materials of milk is usually to check the womb through the determination of protein nitrogen contents, the addition of melamine checks are intended to deceive in order to make normal contents of protein.

Data security of melamine

The addition of melamine to food is not allowed by the authority of supervisors of any food. The studies on the effects of melamine on humans have not yet, the results on the extrapolation from animal studies can be used to estimate the effect on humans.

This is when the melamine appears to have joined the polluter melamine will form crystals which can be a kidney stone. Kidney stones have been visible on the animals sacrifice case of mixing melamine years ago. This is the kidney stones that can clog small channel in the kidney and can stop the production of urine, kidney failure, even death.

Has been known that melamine is carsinogen on animals. Symptoms observed due to melamine contamination found in the blood in the urine, the urine production slightly, or not produced at all, signs of kidney infection, and high blood pressure.

Food and Drugs Administration (Food and Drugs Agency) declares the United States, which can be daily Feed tolerated (tolerable daily intake / TDI) melamine is 0.63 mg per kg body weight. In the European community, supervisory authorities will set a lower standard of 0.5 mg per kg body weight.

The Lessons

This case gives us many lessons. First, the analysis of protein in the food with the method of determining nitrogen in this case appeared can be cheat with the another high nitrogen womb . In fact, there are other means for analysis of protein than with the determination of nitrogen contents, in which case such as this needs to be done.

Second, knowledge about the dangers of the use of additional substance for food should be given to all, and is involved in food production. Desire greater profit, which may be combined with ignorance, the impact is very large.

Tuesday, September 30, 2008

Do you know what the melamine is?

Melamine is an organic compound that is often combined with formaldehyde to produce melamine resin, a synthetic polymer which is fire resistant and heat tolerant. Melamine resin is a very versatile material with a highly stable structure. Uses for melamine include whiteboards, floor tiles, kitchenware, fire retardant fabrics, and commercial filters. Melamine can be easily molded while warm, but will set into a fixed form. This property makes it ideally suited to certain industrial applications.

Melamine resin is manufactured by mixing urea with formaldehyde under heat and pressure. The substances begin to polymerize and are forced into a mold which will create the desired shape. Under pressure, melamine releases water, which could make the plastic unstable if it is not removed. The materials finish polymerizing and create a finished product, melamine resin.

Melamine resin is known as a thermoset plastic, because the plastic is fixed after molding. If exposed to enough heat, melamine will melt. For this reason, melamine dishware should not be exposed to high temperatures like those in the oven and microwave. However, the plastic is able to withstand higher temperatures than other plastics. Because it is a thermoset plastic, melamine resin is difficult to recycle.

Melamine can be made into a foam product. Melamine foam has a distinctive structure composed of stacked bubble shapes, which are extremely hard and therefore can easily clean a wide variety of substances. Melamine foam is marketed under a variety of commercial names including Magic Eraser, a cleaning tool well known for removing scuffs and dirt from a wide range of surfaces.

Melamine resin is used in Formica and similar construction products made from composite materials. Formica is made using melamine resin, which is used to coat the fibers in the upper layer of the construction product. The melamine resin makes the end result heat resistant, so that hot objects can be set on the counter without concern. The surface of the material is designed to be easily wiped and cleaned, creating a long lived household product.

Melamine also plays a role in a wide range of flame resistant materials. These include textiles used in upholstery and the uniforms worn by firemen. Thermal liners, heat resistant gloves, and aprons to protect from splashback of hot substances are made using melamine. Melamine will protect a wearer from heat hazards, and will help to resist the spread of fire in aircraft and buses by providing a fire blocker.

Melamine is also used in the manufacture of some filters. The material is porous and will admit substances to pass through, but can be used to filter out particles of a particular size. Melamine filters are capable of handling a high capacity and can be used in hot environments due to the heat resistance of melamine. Melamine filters are also extremely efficient.

Aside from common commercial uses, melamine became a topic of much discussion in early 2007, when veterinary scientists determined it to be the cause of hundreds of pet deaths, because of pet food contamination. Prior to these reports, melamine had been regarded as non-toxic or minimally toxic. However, because of the unexplained presence of melamine in wheat gluten added to mass-produced dog and cat foods, it is the most likely cause. Pet owners report symptoms that are commonly associated with renal failure, which could be explained by the ammonia that may result from the digestion of the melamine.

Unfortunely, the similar chase happens again in latest 2008. And the victims are a lot of babies and toddlers in China and its neighboring countries.

Source: wisegeek.com

Thursday, March 13, 2008

How to manage the baby blues?

"I can not explain to my husband what I felt. When feeling sad over, I gave in and the baby does ask. But, of course, will feel more comfortable if he lengannya to roll my shoulder. "
Approximately 50 to 80 percent of young mothers experience "baby blues". Usually starts on the second or third day after the baby is born and end no more than 10 days kemudian.

The symptoms

That include:
* Cry.
* Changes in feelings.
* Anxious.
* Lonely.
* A decrease in sexual appetite.
* Worried about the baby.
* Less confident about the ability to become a mother.

What should be done to prevent?

There are many things to do, such as:
* Prevention baby blues is still initiated at the time of pregnancy.
* Care of yourself.
* Eat a balanced menu, sports, and rest essential to prevent and reduce the feeling of change.

Your brain is controlled by a number of chemical and hormonal production is dependent on the supply of blood and oxygen and nutritional substances. The most effective way for the production of hormones is that sports will stimulate blood circulation, relax, making your body repair the damaged parts and restore energy, and good nutrition, which provides what is needed by the central nervous system to maintain a balance of emotional healthy. (Continue to eat a vitamin consumption during pregnancy during the next few months so that you get all the nutrition needed).

Feel Comfort

What should be done ?
* Many of rest. Ask for help the family, neighbor, friend or helpmate to keep your baby while you siesta.
* Each day try berekreasi. Plan out the baby with you, or ask the family to maintain the poppet while you go shopping, roads, following the exercises, or go for a night out with her husband.
* Eat foods with a balanced menu. Including many cereals, dairy products, fruits and fresh vegetables, and foods rich in protein such as fish, chicken, beef, cheese and pod-polongan.
* Ask for support. Tell a pair of what you feel and ask for help and support. Follow the assembly mothers, or mother's complicated friendship with another young mother-in your office.
* Trust yourself. Note that even without experience, many new parents do what is right for their baby.

What to Avoid ?
* Avoid too analyze your feelings. Baby blues is a normal event.
* Avoid trying to do all that you do like before your baby is born. Think a moment before giving the command in other people.
* Avoid exclude themselves from family and friends. You need private time, but also need support and friendship.

The period of depression in childbed

Depression during childbed or postpartum depression (PPD) is a term for the syndrome is very serious misconception. Experts do not agree with the very definition of this, then I will not try to define you. But I will tell you what it, what should I do if my experience it.

Symptoms of PPD include:

* It's hard to sleep, even when your baby is sleeping.
* Lost appetite.
* The freeze does not control or lose.
* Too worried or not at all the attention on the baby.
* No fear or touch like a baby.
* A scary thought about your baby.
* Little or no attention to personal appearance.
* Physical symptoms such as difficulty breathing or a feeling pulse.

If you experience these symptoms, you should inform your husband, the midwife / doctor and the trainers of childbirth preparation, about what you feel. Since if found early, the disease can be cured with medication and counseling. If the depression very heavy, you may need to be treated in the hospital.

Monday, March 3, 2008

Recognize the trauma of injury teeth

Don't be panic! You may follow:
  • Learn the required emergency course of action in orofacial trauma cases.
  • Be able to advise parent of best course of action following the injury.
  • Recognize that other orofacial structures may have been damaged.
  • Understand the significance of early referral to a pediatric dentist for careful assessment of the injury.
Do the injury baby or permanent teeth of your child like ones of these?



















Further, visit this site.

Source:
www.nypartnersinoralhealth.com

Monday, February 11, 2008

First Aid: Injury to a permanent tooth

Injury to a permanent tooth, however, is a medical emergency that could have long-term effects if not handled quickly and properly. Follow these steps in the event of an injury:

  • If the tooth is still in your child's mouth, that's the best place for it. If the tooth has fallen out, find it.
  • When you find the tooth, hold it by the crown (the enamel-covered part of the tooth, the widest part of the tooth).
  • Using cool water, rinse the tooth. Don't scrub away or remove any tissue fragments.
  • If your child's mouth is injured and you can't put the tooth back, put it in milk or saline solution. The PH level of milk is similar to that of saliva and can help preserve the tooth. Parents can ask their pediatric dentists how to obtain a "tooth saver kit," which has all of the necessary supplies to save a child's tooth for transport to the dentist's office.
  • Take your child and the tooth to the dentist immediately. If your dentist is unavailable, go to the emergency room.
source:
http://www.mayoclinic.com/

Saturday, February 2, 2008

Injuries to baby teeth

Injuries to child's teeth can occur from falls, during play or during sports activities. Knowing what to do if a child's tooth is injured can be the difference between saving and losing the tooth. It can be cracks or chips, or tooth loss. The child may experience bleeding from the area, pain or increased sensitivity when a tooth is injured.

Injuries to baby teeth and permanent teeth are usually treated differently. Because there is no threat of long-term disability from a missing baby tooth, these injuries are not treated as medical emergencies. In some cases, a temporary partial can be fitted to the child's mouth to replace a missing baby tooth, but it is most common to allow the child's mouth to heal and wait until the permanent tooth grows in.

The good news is that children who have dental injuries can have their teeth repaired and keep them for a lifetime.The parent or caregiver should immediately call the dentist and take the child and the tooth or tooth fragments to the dental office. Because, when it comes to dental injuries, time is a critical factor. The length of time before a tooth is reimplanted and how it is transported to the dentist are crucial in successfully saving and reimplanting the tooth.

When are baby teeth most at risk from injury?

Children are most accident prone between the ages of two and four years. The majority of accidents happen in or around the home. Injuries to baby teeth often result from a fall. Damage can be caused by either a direct blow to the teeth, or by the impact of the lower jaw being forced upwards. The front teeth are the most likely to be affected.

Always consult your dentist after a child's tooth or jaw has been injured.

How to prevent tooth injuries in children?
  • Teach them not to walk or run while holding an object in his or her mouth.
  • Teach them not to suck or chew on hard, sharp or pointed objects.
  • Have them wear a mouthguard for sports activities that could cause injury.
  • Always wear seat belts when riding in vehicles.
What can be done if a baby tooth has been chipped or broken?

Loosening or displacement is the most common injury to baby teeth. This is because the bone in which the root is anchored is soft and elastic in a young child.

If a tooth is chipped, and only the enamel is affected, smoothing the sharp or roughened edge is usually all that is needed.

If a front tooth has a chipped biting edge, a tooth-coloured plastic filling can be bonded to the tooth. This will restore its shape and appearance, and protect the edge from further damage. Since the enamel has no nerve supply, these treatments are painless.

When larger piece of tooth has broken off, the tooth can become painful. This is because the dentine layer of tooth under the enamel has become sensitive to hot and cold.
  • The tooth can be repaired with a tooth-coloured filling or with an amalgam.
  • The injured tooth should be checked regularly for any colour changes.
  • A colour change to grey indicates that the nerve and blood vessels have died.
The treatment for a baby tooth that has been knocked out:
  • Re-implantation of a baby tooth is not done as it would damage the permanent tooth under it.
  • The gap left by the loss of a baby tooth must be kept open for the permanent tooth that will eventually replace it.
A space maintainer can be fitted to prevent other teeth from drifting into the gap.

What happen with Grey discoloured or Fractures tooth?

A colour change to grey indicates that the nerve and blood vessels have died. Should it become painful or infected, the tooth may need to be extracted. This is to preserve the health of the underlying permanent tooth.
  • An alternative may be to perform a pulpotomy. This is the removal of the nerves and blood vessels in the crown of the tooth. It is not a difficult procedure and is usually successful.
  • Severe fracture of the crown of a baby tooth is not common.
Fractures mean a tooth can be driven into the jawbone by a fall or any impact on the tooth.
  • This could damage the permanent tooth growing under it.
  • If an x-ray confirms that the permanent tooth is at risk, the baby tooth will have to be

From many source

Thursday, January 31, 2008

Baby teeth

Healthy teeth are important to your baby's overall health, because they help your baby chew food and form words and sounds when speaking. They also affect the way your baby's jaw grows.

For an infant, the mouth is an exquisitely sensitive portal connecting the world around him to his developing mind and body. He uses his mouth to meet his mother, to sate his constant hunger, to comfort himself between feedings, and to explore objects in the widening world around him. When hard teeth begin protruding into this soft, sensitive orifice, it is a major event in the life of an infant.

What are deciduous teeth?

The first set of teeth in the growth development of humans and many other mammals known as milk teeth, baby teeth, temporary teeth, primary teeth. They can be call deciduous teeth. They develop during the embryonic stage of development and erupt — that is, they become visible in the mouth — during infancy. They are usually lost and replaced by permanent teeth, but in the absence of permanent replacements, they can remain functional for many years.

When will the development of deciduous teeth start?

Deciduous teeth start to form during the embryo phase of pregnancy. The development of deciduous teeth starts at the sixth week of development as the dental lamina. This process starts at the midline and then spreads back into the posterior region. By the time the embryo is eight weeks old, there are ten areas on the upper and lower arches that will eventually become the deciduous dentition.

When will my baby's teeth appear?

Many parents worry about the timing of the appearance of their children's teeth. Every baby is different. While the average time for the appearance of the first teeth is between 4 and 7 months of age, there is a wide normal variation of timing. The teeth might come in as early as one month of age, or they might wait until a child is almost one-and-a-half-years old.
The first teeth to come in are usually the 2 front teeth on the bottom. Generally girls' teeth erupt earlier than those of boys (much like with everything else). Delayed eruption of all teeth may be the result of a nutritional problem, such as rickets, or a systemic condition, such as hypopituitarism or hypothyroidism.

Natal teeth or teeth present at birth are found in about one out of two thousand newborn infants. These are often extra teeth, but this should be confirmed radiographically before any attempt is made to remove them. Natal teeth may cause pain to the infant, poor feeding, and, if the baby is nursing, maternal discomfort. Natal teeth may also cause damage or even amputation of the tip of the newborn's tongue due to strong sucking behavior. Early appearance of all teeth may indicate a hormonal problem such as hyperthyroidism.

Baby teeth fall out on their own to make room for permanent teeth. Once your child loses his or her first baby teeth, the remaining baby teeth will gradually loosen and fall out until about age 12 or 13 years. They generally fall out in the order they came in, with the center incisor teeth first, followed by the first baby molars, then the canines, and the second molars.

The average time and usual order of appearance is
• Four central incisors (cutters) start appearing at around 6-7 months
• Four more side incisors appear at around 8 months
• Four back molars (chewing teeth) appear at between 10-14 months
• Four canines (pointed teeth) appear at around 16-20 months.
• Four more back molars appear at between 24-30 months.
The following tables outline the normal ranges for teeth to erupt and to shed: (Adapted from chart prepared by PK Losch, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, from Nelson's Textbook of Pediatrics.)

Eruption of Primary or Deciduous Teeth


Upper

Lower

Central incisors

6-8 months

5-7 months

Lateral incisors

8-11 months

7-10 months

Cuspids (canines)

16-20 months

16-20 months

First molars

10-16 months

10-16 months

Second molars

20-30 months

20-30 months

Shedding of Primary or Deciduous Teeth


Upper

Lower

Central incisors

7-8 years

6-7 years

Lateral incisors

8-9 years

7-8 years

Cuspids (canines)

11-12 years

9-11 years

First molars

10-11 years

10-12 years

Second molars

10-12 years

11-13 years

Eruption of Permanent Teeth


Upper

Lower

Central incisors

7-8 years

6-7 years

Lateral incisors

8-9 years

7-8 years

Cuspids (canines)

11-12 years

9-11 years

First premolars (bicuspids)

10-11 years

10-12-years

Second premolars (bicuspids)

10-12 years

11-13 years

First molars

6-7 years

6-7 years

Second molars

12-13 years

12-13 years

Third molars (wisdom teeth)

17-22 years

17-22 years


What will happen to my child while losing baby teeth?

Some children are excited about losing baby teeth, while others are nervous about this milestone. While losing baby teeth often causes:
  • - no discomfort,
  • - some children experience sore gums and
  • - minimal bleeding.
Pain relievers, such as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others), acetaminophen (Tylenol, others) and over-the-counter topical analgesics may help.

What can I do to help my teething baby?

Teething is usually painless, but it can make some babies uncomfortable and fussy. Giving your baby a cold teething ring or a cold washcloth to chew or suck on may help. Teething gels should be used carefully because too much is not good for your baby.

Teething does not cause a fever. If your baby has a fever, you should talk to your doctor.

What about breast feeding, bottles and sippy cups?

Breast feeding is good for your baby's teeth. If you give your baby a bottle, always hold the baby when you feed him or her. Do not leave a bottle in the crib. Do not put juice in a bottle.

Your baby can start using a sippy cup when he or she is 6 months old. Stop giving your baby a bottle when he or she is a year old. Do not let your baby walk around with a sippy cup unless it has only water in it. Do not give your baby a sippy cup of juice or milk in the crib.

After your child is one year old, give only water or plain milk between meals instead of other drinks. If you give your child juice or flavored milk (like sweetened milk products), only give it with meals. Juice and flavored milk have a lot of sugar in them.

When should I start brushing my baby's teeth?

Start cleaning your baby's teeth twice a day as soon as the first tooth appears. Until your child is 1 year old, you can use a wet washcloth or gauze to clean your baby's teeth and gums. At about a 1 year to 18 months of age, you should start using a soft baby toothbrush and a small dab of toothpaste that does not have flouride in it. (This type of toothpaste is safe for your baby to swallow.)

When should I take my baby to the dentist?

Be sure to take your baby to a dentist by his or her first birthday, especially if there is a high risk for cavities or any other problems with his or her teeth. It is better for your child to meet the dentist and see the office before he or she has a tooth problem.

How to take good care of permanent teeth?

Because your child's permanent teeth will have to last a lifetime, it's important to take good care of them. Teach your child to brush his or her own teeth after each meal. It's also a good time to start showing your child how to floss at bedtime. Children should have their first dentist appointment at about age 3 years — earlier if problems occur.

As soon as the permanent back teeth have broken through, your child's dentist may cover them with a brush-on sealant. This can help protect them against tooth decay. Other steps you can take to decrease your child's risk of tooth decay include:

  • Limit sugary treats. This includes juices with high sugar content, such as apple juice.
  • Give your child a fluoride supplement, if your water doesn't contain fluoride. Your child's doctor or dentist may prescribe a fluoride supplement.

Source:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deciduous_teeth http://familydoctor.org/online/famdocen/home/children/parents/kidshealthy/healthy-choice/834.html
http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/baby-teeth/AN00355
http://www.babyworld.co.uk/information/baby/teeth/order_appearance_teeth.asp#

Sunday, January 20, 2008

Caesar Surgery (seksio sesarea) and Tips That Surgery

The process of the birth of a baby often does not smooth that and be like. Many factors that cause a mother can not reasonably undergo childbirth (per vaginam). Caesar surgery (seksio sesarea) often become the last option.

The advancement of Caesar Surgery Technology

Now with the advancement of medical science majunya field surgical technique, anesthesia, and perineonatologi (areas that deal fetus aged 28 weeks, born to be born after 28 weeks), surgical technology caesar experience rapid progress. At this time the frequency of the mother who can undergo surgery safely caesar increased to four times during her life. At the past, she only have chance in three times.

At the past, only known classical techniques of caesar surgery (Corpora) with a longitudinal slice from the navel down to the bone genitalia. Now slice can cross from left to right in the top right above the bikini. The aesthetic, this new surgical technique better.

The Cause of the Caesar Surgery
There are several causes of why the operation should be made caesar, namely

* Plasenta position under the womb
* Tumor arising in the way of birth
* Deviation disposition baby
* Baby is too big
* Maternal pelvis is too small
* Crisis occurred in the infant, such as lack of oxygen
* Plasenta functions that are not too good because the time limit or have a particular disease.

From a variety of factors, which most often is found so that the expectant mother must caesar surgery is risky because the fetus, plasenta location below, and the location of the baby aberration. Caesar operation can be predicted since the beginning of the pregnancy. For example, because the mother's narrow pelvis. However, the decision can also be done for caesar operation some time before birth, such as due to gravity on the fetus or plasenta function that is not good.

Advice and Tips

In each operation requires special preparation. Moreover surgery including caesar is large surgery. Here are suggestions and tips on caesar surgery :

1. Necessary preparation, both physical and mental capital. In this case, the doctor who will perform the operation will give the mother to know about the process of operating it. For example akan injected in the spine or dibius.

2. Doctors also need to know that to the mother after the surgery there will be some inconvenience is felt, can not drink like some time and can not move much.

3. With caesar surgery, then the next pregnancy will be greater the risk. The former have injured surgery have the potential for a lacerated during birth. Therefore, to be more secure, the next pregnancy for at least six months after the caesar surgery done. The next time the pregnancy, will be the better for the mother.

4. There is no prohibition in the food. Mother after surgery is recommended to eat foods that contain many nutrients and vitamins.

5. Just do normal activity as usual, but to accelerate the healing process after surgery. Avoid activities and sports that weight. Healthy way can still be home not too heavy.

6. Injury due to the surgery will usually recover in a total time of six months. Therefore, if you want to get pregnant again, so it's six months after surgery .